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押井守如何评价真人版《攻壳机动队》
超有病 04 家庭战争(2014)[1280x720][x264_m4a][8bit]加刘景长压制,感谢作者正版授权
爱丽斯梦游仙境 Alice in Wonderland(1951)[BDRIP][1428x1080][movie][x264_m4a][10bit]
恋姬无双 Koihime Musou(2008)[1920x1080][TV12+OVA+sp2+NCoped4][x264_m4a][10bit]
为什么现在国内的油画尺寸越画越大?
《冰雪奇缘》和《驯龙高手》冰与雪在制作上有何不同
Amazon反应速度超快的下拉菜单
图像处理中高斯模糊的算法
《后会无期》制片人方励访谈
为何要赋予影像“胶片感”?如何模拟胶片?(双语译文)
松本大洋 X 汤浅政明 拉力对谈!
为什么希区柯克喜欢在自己的电影里路过?
梦工厂动画师Toby Shelton《​极速蜗牛Turbo》故事版
《哥斯拉》(2014)导演Gareth Edwards访谈
山田洋次谈战争记忆怎样影响他的电影
渡边浩对谈山田洋次<东京家族和东京物语>
木卫二 五色全味对谈 《麦兜当当伴我心》
库布里克谈《闪灵》 双语译文
Game<罪恶工具:X标记>图形讲座 2D风格的3D画面如何打造?
马尔克斯对谈黑泽明 García Márquez/Kurosawa 双语译文
摄影师Matthew Scott分析《囚徒 Prisoners》(2013)镜头
中国书画作品的一般尺寸计算规则
CANAAN 迦南[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV13+CM4+Menu6+SP2+pv+NCoped][x264_m4a][10bit]
大都会 Metropolis(2001)[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie][x264_m4a][10bit]
尾田荣一郎 x 井上雄彦访谈
赤松健《love hina 纯情房东俏房客》
谷口治郎 受封法国骑士勋章获奖访谈
京极夏彦访谈 - 扔掉固执与坚持,你就会变得轻松
访谈 - 《恶之教典》作者:贵志祐介漫谈创作过程
筒井康隆——拼命去做喜欢的事情!
访谈:荒川弘X荒木飞吕彦对谈
不是建筑师的希区柯克不是好导演(转)
高斯与数学老师
对话《乒乓》艺术总监Aymeric Kevin By eZio Pan
手冢治虫-怪医黑杰克 幕后附录
设计:好的,坏的和丑的
林夕眼中的张国荣
超有病 03 黑龙之战(2014)[1280x720][x264_m4a][8bit]加刘景长压制,感谢作者正版授权
西游记-悟空群战山妖分镜
色彩心理学:为什么蓝色汽车的事故率最高?
大正野球娘 Taishou Yakyuu Musume[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV12][x264_m4a][10bit]
分镜术语
世界上最大的文件压缩
电影《黑太阳731》(1937)拍摄的背后故事
冰雪奇缘 Frozen(2013)中的雪的模拟花絮
简单之美 摄影师Peter Belanger是如何为苹果产品拍照的
未来学大会 The Congress(2013 法国)[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie][x264_m4a][10bit]
押井守 跨越十年的三次问答(外一则)
电影《同桌的你》故事版
迈克尔·杰克逊“复活”Slave to the Rhythm 花絮附带正片视频1080p
KILL la KILL 双斩少女 原画设定集 Artworks
97年的Mekka ’97 4K Intro比赛的一等奖作品代码开源
夏日大作战 分镜
书籍 鳥山明漫画教室
蜘蛛侠分镜
字体Comic Sans 背后的故事
漫画分镜头表现教程 作者:中国·Oran猪
分镜头脚本设计教程 意大利 克里斯提亚诺
电影 少年派漂流 剪辑师采访
Editors on Editing - Breaking Bad 绝命毒师剪辑师访谈
William Goldenberg Talks Argo 逃离德黑兰剪辑访谈
说出你的故事130515 配音演员王晓燕(《美少女战士》月野兔 中配)
仙剑奇侠传5 剧情动画分镜头脚本
鬼畜全明星素材
泡面篇01 统一-满汉大餐麻辣锅牛肉面
韩情《官能的法则》电影故事板、美术色彩风格和剧情关联分析
动画 一周的朋友 中藤宫香织 记忆只能维持一周这种病症真实存在么?
魔卡少女樱OP 3D(Blender)
[超清]索尼4K摄像机Promotion Video for 4K Handycam FDR AX1 2160p
[超清]苹果 2160p 测试片
[超清]变形金刚4 预告片 2160p
动画销量相关科普
景深概念与计算
[超清]中二病也要谈恋爱 ED Inside Identity[3840x2160][x264_m4a][10bit]自制
[超清]变态王子与不笑猫 NCED Baby Sweet Berry Love[3840x2160][x264_m4a][10bit]自制
换了E5 10核单路+GTX770 4G显存+32G内存 新配置来晒晒(′・ω・`)
超有病之勇者传说-01-02话(2014)[1280x720][x264_m4a][8bit]加刘景长压制,感谢作者正版授权
勿忘蛛 监督访谈 逸话谭 日语原文
中二病也要谈恋爱! 剧场版 小鸟游六花 改 Takanashi Rikka Kai Gekijouban Chuunibyou demo Koi ga Shitai!(2013)[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie+sp11][x264_m4a][10bit]
新浪微博是怎么一步步衰退的?
《霍比特人2》巨龙史矛革制作花絮
进击的巨人真人版CM 幕后花絮
GAME 逆转裁判 系列中有哪些法律、律师相关的错误?
来自风平浪静的明天 实拍圣地巡礼对比 三重県熊野市・紀伊長島・他
6部经典电影镜头是如何一气呵成的
动画短片 大教堂 THE.CATHEDRAL.RETAIL 教程及源文件
动画短片 Fallen Art 堕落的艺术 制作过程
《冰雪奇缘》(2014)幕后花絮 演员配音动画制作配乐录制
同一作品的不同作画监督笔下的人物造型一览
电影每秒24格的历史
日本元请动画制作公司员工数粗略统计
字体库 Fonts[5670款]个人收集
曲线的连续-proe曲面延续
AIURA(2013)[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV12+NCoped][x264_m4a][10bit]
梵高的星空 Night Visions
GAINAX动画讲义 系列翻译 下(19-27回)
GAINAX动画讲义 系列翻译 中(10-18回)
GAINAX动画讲义 系列翻译 上(1-9回)
増田弘道:日本人看中国的动漫业
电影 辛德勒名单(1993) 20周年 现实与电影中的克拉科夫
希区柯克论悬念 Hitchcock on the Art of Suspense
网络剧 万万没想到 制作花絮
大友克洋 - 回忆三部曲 1995大炮之街 中文分镜解说
黑客帝国分镜台本
电影艺术观察 诺兰 vs.诺兰(双语译文)
拍摄真人电影中,演员们为进入角色而采用的最疯狂的方式
皮克斯理论 每一个动画角色都存在于同一个时空中
铅中毒,而后成名艺术家(双语译文)
押井守-常胜导演的悲剧 文字访谈
大塚康生-不动声色的民族主义 文字访谈
大塚康生-TV动画时代的开幕 兼谈一拍三 文字访谈
偶像大师 作画花絮
盗梦侦探 红辣椒 花絮
阿基拉AKIRA 花絮(英字)
黄嘉伟谈漫画分镜
天元突破 原画
To love 梦梦·贝莉雅·戴比路克​ Retas角色上色
色彩改变卡片戏法 Colour Changing Card Trick
攻壳机动队 剧场版 摄影实例 日本动画传统摄影
七龙珠 赛璐珞上色
无敌看板娘 花絮 数字化摄影
京都动画 Kanon 制作现场访谈
为何日本网页设计如此与众不同?双语翻译
卡农 与 约翰·巴哈贝尔
啤酒瓶为什么是绿的呢
哆啦a梦 最诡异的一集 全程无对白
你知道世界上最长的电影有多长?10个小时?20个小时?不,是87个小时
科普 音乐相关名词
科普 耳机概论
科普 发烧唱片、发烧音乐的简单说明
科普 耳放知识
斗牛的真相 公牛能看见红色吗?
为什么移轴摄影拍出来的照片都像缩微模型一样的感觉?
新海诚作品 那样极为写实的画面是如何制作出来的?
如何使用PS 直方图判断一张照片的曝光是否完全准确
如何欣赏 荷兰画家 彼埃·蒙德里安的画稿(非具象绘画的创始者之一) 双语文章
如何鉴赏 西班牙画家、雕塑家 巴勃罗·鲁伊斯·毕加索 的画稿(立体画派创始人)
为什么宫崎骏的动画里女主角多是短发?
曾梵志画作《最后的晚餐》天价解读
黄金分割等几何比例用于 Logo 设计的案例
不同电脑压缩同一个文件产生的压缩文件是一样的吗
高压缩文件是如何实现的?
花名未闻 圣地巡游
张艺谋、徐克、姜文 分镜对比
影视广告是什么时候开始的,如何看待这一行为?[未完]
Retas无纸动画演示《钢之炼金术师》
锁锁美同学@提不起劲 Sasami-san@Ganbaranai[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV12+CM3+sp7+Menu12++NCoped+info][x264_m4a][10bit
电影 全面回忆 Total Recall (美国 加拿大)花絮访谈[2012]
白雪公主 手稿 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Concept Art Illustration
大友克洋为老人Z题字
斗战神 “万妖集结”CG幕后
大魔法峠 花絮特典访谈 监督水岛努[日语无字幕]
血仇 海菲茨和麦考伊斯 花絮 Hatfields And Mccoys(美国 剧情)[2012][1920x1080]
蝙蝠侠3 黑暗骑士崛起 花絮 The Dark Knight Rises(美国)[2012][1280X720]
了不起的盖茨比 The Great Gatsby(2013 剧情爱情)幕后特效 在线
我的妹妹是大阪大妈 花絮 声优阿澄佳奈(Asumi Kana)访谈[2013][1920X1080]
谷歌作家论坛: 乔治-马丁:冰与火之歌 冰与火之歌讲座
言叶之庭 官方摄影与正片绘画对比
电影 环太平洋 机甲内部拍摄花絮[2013] 在线
名侦探柯南花絮特典访谈集[864x480]
魁拔导演王川 谈动画电影的工业实践 在线
纪录短片:20世纪30年代赛璐璐动画制作
戏作者们的辩解——庵野秀明对谈几原邦彦 文字访谈[1998]
押井守:手塚治虫的功罪(附论一拍三)
雷·哈里豪森 龟兔赛跑 花絮与简介[在线]
动画 吸血鬼猎人D 原画分镜 川尻喜昭監督
电影 巨人捕手杰克 Jack The Giant Slayer(美国) 花絮 1.39G[2013][1280x720]
电视剧 权力的游戏 第二季(美国)女法师显露真容[2012][在线]
蝴蝶 Le papillon (法国)法语中字 花絮[2011]
环形使者 Looper(美国)英字 3.7G[2011][1280x720]
电影 终结者2 Terminator 2: Judgment Day (美国) 花絮[1991][720x576]
那些年,我们一起追的女孩(台湾)花絮[2011][640X480]
超人:钢铁之躯(美国)花絮 “汉斯·季默塑造配乐” [2011]
赛德克·巴莱 花絮 Warriors of the Rainbow Seediq Bale Bonus(台湾)[2011][1280X720]
皮克斯动画工作室纪录片 皮克斯传奇 The Pixar Story[2007]
工业光魔影视工作室纪录片 工业光魔 创造不可能 Industrial Light & Magic Creating the Impossib
阿凡达 渲染数据中心
冰河世纪3 真人跟3D 对比花絮
短片 making of wakfu(wakfu制作采访)
宝莲灯 配音花絮
天使之卵(1985)[BDRIP][1920x1080][MOVIE+sp+menu][x264_m4a][10bit]
迪士尼卡通是如何制作的 How Walt Disney Cartoons Are Made (1939)无字幕[480x360][纪录片][x264_m4a][8bit]
Gobelins 动画系主任 Eric Riewer采访记录
提姆.伯顿访谈科学怪狗Frankenweenie
Milt Kahl谈小飞侠Peter Pan
迪士尼三大元老谈小鹿斑比
Russian Railways[640x360][短片][x264_m4a][8bit]
日本2016将推广8K H.265实时编码器
对某飞行员的追忆 Toaru Hikuushi eno Tsuioku[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie+pv2+sp7][x264_m4a][10bit]
MediaCoder分布式编码简易使用教程
通过Mediacoder的分布式编码功能加速视频剪辑软件渲染输出(转自官网)
阿尔卑斯山的少女(飘零燕)The Little Vagrant Lady 国粤日三语版(1974)监督高畑勋 设定构成宫崎骏[DVDRIP][480p][TV52][x264_m4a][8bit]
吉卜力短篇集 部分无字幕[DVDRIP][640x480][movie+menu][x264_m4a][8bit]
R-15[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV12+OVA+CHAP5+NCoped+pv+sp3+cm][x264_m4a][10bit]
白蛇传 Hakuja den(1958)[DVDrip][640x480][x264_m4a][8bit]
桃太郎 海之神兵 Momotarou - Umi no Shinpei(1945)678x462 [x264_m4a][8bit]
EVA新世纪福音战士 新剧场版Q EVANGELION3.33 YOU CAN (NOT) REDO(2012)[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie+Menu+pv+sp52][x264_m4a][10bit]
东京教父 Tokyo Godfathers[BDRIP][1080p去黑边]movie[x264_m4a][10bit]
幽灵公主 鹿运动的解析
新子与千年魔法 Mai Mai Miracle 1080p[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie+menu+sp][x264_m4a][10bit]
伏 铁炮妹的捕物帐 伏 鉄砲娘の捕物帳 Fuse - Teppou Musume no Torimonochou[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie+Menu+CM6+sp10][x264_m4a][10bit]
想起了你 Thought of You 720p(2010)美国 短片+花絮[x264_m4a][8bit]
地铁大逃杀 导演 宋尚
裸体哈维闯人生 Harvie Krumpet 720x400(2003)澳大利亚 短片 76届奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]
日常 花絮 无字幕Nichijou[BDRIP][1920x1080][配音花絮3+旅行花絮11+BGM花絮13+拍摄花絮13][x264_m4a][8bit]
日常 Nichijou[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV26+OVA480p+NCoped8+pv5+CM+预告集][x264_m4a][10bit]加刘景长压制
月亮和孩子 The Moon and the Son An Imagined Conversation 656x480(2005)美国 78届奥斯卡最佳动画短[x264_m4a][8bit]
玛丽和马克思 Mary and Max 1080p(2009)澳大利亚[x264_m4a][8bit]
动画短片 I Have Your Heart 纸片定格动画
动画短片 Full Moon
动画短片 Little Monkey
动画短片 Tea Ballin!
丹麦诗人 The Danish Poet 720x400(2006)加拿大、挪威 短片 79届奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]
彼德与狼 Peter & the Wolf 1080p(2006)英国、波兰 短片 80届奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]
低能侦探 Defective Detective 480p(2011)美国[x264_m4a][8bit]
闹钟 Alarm 720p(2009)韩国 短片[x264_m4a][8bit]
回忆积木小屋 Tsumiki no ie(2008)480p 短片 81届奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]
商标的世界 Logorama 720p 法国 短片 2009奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]
失物招领 The Lost Thing (2010)720x576 澳大利亚 短片 2010奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]加刘景长压制
纸人 Paperman(2012)1080p 短片 2013奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]加刘景长压制
神奇飞书 The Fantastic Flying Books of Mr. Morris Lessmore (2011)720x480 短片 2012奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]加刘景长压制
H.265 HEVC测试模型(HM 1.0)的编码工具 - 帧内预测分析(英语原文无翻译)
H.265 实验与展望
老人与海 Old Man And The Sea(1999)480p 短片 2000奥斯卡最佳动画短片[x264_m4a][8bit]
散华礼弥 僵尸哪有那么萌 Sankarea[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV13+OAD2+CM3+menu6+NCoped3+pv3][x264_m4a][10bit]加刘景长压制
恶童 Tekkon kinkreet 日英粤三语(2006)[BDRIP][1920x1080][movie+花絮][x264_m4a][10bit]加刘景长压制
勿忘蛛 Wasurenagumo OVA[1280x720][x264_m4a][8bit]加刘景长压制
丸山正雄在国内的访谈 天天向上 091127 丸山正雄首登娱乐节目
欢迎来到宇宙Show Welcome 访谈花絮
夏日大作战 CG制作+声优访谈 无字幕 动画花絮
兄弟连(2001 美国 冒险战争)电视剧花絮
泰坦尼克号(1997 美国 爱情灾难)电影花絮
复仇者联盟 The Avengers 短片+电影删减片段+花絮(2012 美国 科幻冒险) 1080p
管制塔(2011 日本 剧情)电影花絮
蝴蝶梦(1940 美国 剧情爱情)电影花絮 希区柯克的唯一获奥斯卡的影片​​
X战警 第一战 电影花絮
盗梦侦探(红辣椒) 动画剧场版 花絮
那年冬天风在吹 韩国电视剧 花絮
人类衰退之后 Jinrui wa Suitai Shimashita[BDRIP][1920x1080][TV12+menu6+NCoped+pv5+CM+SP7][x264_m4a][10bit]
冰河世纪 番外篇 幸存的希德 3D动画 花絮
这里是留言板
借东西的阿丽埃蒂 花絮 NHK纪录片 宫崎骏和麻吕碰撞的400天
虞美人盛开的山坡 花絮 NHK纪录片 宫崎骏与长子宫崎吾朗300天的激烈交锋
悬崖上的金鱼姬 花絮 NHK纪录片 聚焦宫崎骏和“波妞”300天亲密接触
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为何要赋予影像“胶片感”?如何模拟胶片?(双语译文)

Why Make Video Look Like Film? An Inside Look…

此文为国际胶片摄影师协会的成员摄影指导亚特·亚当斯在为一种filmConvert 软件做测评的时候,顺便深入探索胶片效果模拟产品。由新西兰的一群胶片爱好者团队原本为自己写了一个数字仿胶片的软件,而涉及的关于数字技术上如何呈现胶片感,以及为什么要还原胶片感的探讨。



Art: Who is Rubber Monkey?

Lance: The company was formed by Nigel Stanford and Craig Herring here in Wellington. Nigel is keenly interested in filmmaking, and has executive produced and produced a few films here in New Zealand, as well as abroad, including some great things like “Timescapes” with Tom Lowe, and “Second Hand Wedding” here in New Zealand, while Craig is an old school video game developer. I came along a little while later, and am also hugely keen on filmmaking. One of my more useless degrees is in fact, a Visual Arts Media degree from the University of California, San Diego. Another useless degree is in Physics. 

I was introduced to Craig and Nigel shortly after I finished working on the VFX for “Avatar” at Weta Digital back in 2009, and have also produced and shot a few short films myself, so I love the whole process, from storytelling to shooting to editing to VFX. 


关于Rubber Monkey是什么? 
兰斯:这个公司是由奈杰尔·斯坦福和克雷格·赫林在惠灵顿成立的。奈杰尔对影片制作一直抱有浓厚兴趣,还在新西兰和国外执行制作和制作了几部影片,包括某些优秀的片子,如与汤姆·罗威合作的《时间的风景》以及在新西兰拍摄的《二手婚礼》。克雷格则是一个传统视频游戏开发商。我是过了一小阵子才加入的,也相当热衷于影片制作。我在圣地亚哥的加利福尼亚大学获得了视觉艺术学位,不过没怎么派用场。还有一个物理学位,也同样没用。

2009年,我在维塔公司(Weta Digital)参与完《阿凡达》特效工作不久,就被介绍给克雷格和奈杰尔。我曾拍摄制作过几部短片,所以我喜欢影片制作的全过程——从讲故事到拍摄到编辑到特效。 

IMG 0948 AA02 lance
FilmConvert’s Lance Lones.

FilmConvert的兰斯 

Lance: FilmConvert was actually Nigel’s brainstom, and we haven’t looked back since. Rounding out our development team, just a while ago, we also brought in another great senior developer by the name of Loren Brookes, who hails from the world of visual effects as well, and who has been doing some amazing stuff with our hardware acceleration projects.

兰斯:FilmConvert是奈杰尔头脑风暴的产物。前一段时间,另外一位优秀的资深研发员加入我们,充实了开发团队。他叫洛伦·布鲁克斯,也来自视觉特效界。他在我们的硬件加速项目上一直干得不错。 


Art: How did you become interested in writing FilmConvert? What need did you see that had to be met?

Lance: Bizarrely, or maybe not so bizarrely, FilmConvert really came about because we wanted to use it ourselves!

因为什么起了兴趣要创作FilmConvert呢?是不是想满足什么需要? 
兰斯:说怪不怪,我们写了这个软件本来就是为了自己用的。


If you think back just a few years, and it has been only a few years, our biggest challenge then was really how to get the look out of the camera that we could see in our heads, particularly with things like the RED and Viper cameras. At some sort of random point there was this ah-ha moment where we said, “Hey, let’s just make ‘em look like film.” At the time we had no idea just how complete and swift the final digital filmmaking revolution would be, so the fact that we accurately captured the look and feel of a technology that’s becoming increasingly rare was almost by accident.

So although I’d like to say this was some great plan, it was actually great serendipity instead. It hit directly on some compelling themes that I love: great science, preservation of a dying technology through more technology, and bringing tools to filmmakers everywhere, and not just to the pointy end of the “A” list.

We just really love film, and somehow wanted to have film in our digital cameras.


如果你回想起短短几年,仅仅短短数年以前,我们的愿景还是让脑海里所看到的东西被摄影机,特别是RED和Viper这样的摄影机呈现出来。不知什么时候,我们突发奇想说,嘿,咱来把数码视频弄的像胶片拍的一样吧?那个时候我们还不知道,数字影片制作这场革命到底有多彻底,多迅猛,所以,我们虽是在牢牢抓住一种逐渐消亡的技术,但实际纯属意外。

我也很想说我们在下一盘很大的棋,不巧,还真就是奇思妙想凑巧实现了而已。这个软件直击了一些引人入胜的主题:伟大的科学,用更多技术来保存一种濒危的技术,将工具带给世界各地的影片制作者,而不是只依靠那些最为先进的技术。 

我们只是单纯地喜欢胶片,还想让数码摄影机摄影机也具有胶片感,仅此而已。

IMG 8139 AA02 C100test
Profiling cameras in the “lab.”

在实验室中分析摄影机 

Art: How do you define the “film” look, and–more importantly, perhaps–how do you define a look that screams “video”?

Lance: Film look is indeed sort of a strange thing to try and define. On a technical level there are very specific colour responses and associated printing responses. But  that’s really only half of the story, because the real arbiter of a film look is this funny plastic thing called the human brain which does all sorts of odd things. Both it and the human eye adapt over time, so the exact same thing will look different depending on a number of things such as how long you’ve been sitting in the theatre, whether or not it was sunny or cloudy outside the theatre, how dark the theatre is, and what colour the walls are, just to name a few.

怎么定义“胶片”感,更重要的是,你如何定义视频的典型特征? 
兰斯:尝试创作并且定义胶片感是非常奇怪的。在技术层面上,有许多具体的色对应以及相关的底片对应。但那并不是全部,因为胶片感知中最重要的部份其实就是人脑的可塑性。人脑是非常奇怪的。它和人眼都会随着时间而变化,所以,完全一致的东西会因为许多原因而看起来不同,比如说你在电影院里坐了多久?外面的天气是晴朗还是多云?电影院有多暗,电影院的墙是什么颜色等等。 


So, coming back to film… well, it’s hard to say what the film look is. It’s not the exact colours that are important, but moreover film has what I call a more “organic” feel: the highlights roll off nicely, the shadows roll under nicely, there’s a strange twist in the middle of the colour response, and a curious lack of real deep blues. When running through a projector, the fact that the photosites move around from frame to frame (grain!) adds to the effect, which your brain puts together and screams “film!”

A strict video response seems to miss this somehow. The colours almost always pop too much, the response isn’t quite right, and the exposure curve crashes to a stop right in the highlights. The fact that the filmic chemical process works like our eyes, with a logarithmic response that doesn’t clip in any hard way, adds to that feel.

To some degree it’s almost a philosophical thing. Film is sort of that mystical allegory of the cave thing reality presented to us by filmmakers through a chemical process, which is how life works at it’s most fundamental level. That’s what film does for you. It’s a little bit nutty perhaps, and not easily defined, but the weird organic-like nature of this process is to me part of the fun of filmmaking.

所以,还是说回胶片好了。 
严格的视频对应总是会缺失可塑感。颜色蹦的太厉害,回应也永远不太正确,曝光曲线总是会在高光处出问题。胶片的洗印过程拥有跟人眼相似的工作原理,它的回应方式是对数的,不会以任何生硬的方式被打断,也因此更加增添了那种感觉。

在一定程度上,这几乎算是个哲学问题了。胶片就像是一种神秘的洞穴寓言。电影制作人通过胶片的洗印过程向我们展示这一事实,即生命是如何在最基本的层面上运作的。这就是胶片为你做的事情。这可能会有点奇怪,并且难以定义,但是这种过程中具有的奇特有机性,对我来说,这就是制作电影的乐趣。


Art: You said that film has a “strange twist” in the middle of the color response. Can you tell me more about that?

Lance: It turns out that in most film stocks the responses of the various layers, and the filters in between, introduce a coupling effect. This makes the neutral axis move around a bit in terms of it’s final colour as it goes from low to high exposures, and which I sort of term a twist in the color response, as it’s not exactly neutral all the way up. Electronic sensors aren’t coupled in this manner, and each colour channel responds linearly with the number of photons coming in, so they don’t exhibit this sort of response normally nor is this usually reproduced in cameras’ colour processing.


你说胶片在色回应途中会产生一种“奇怪的扭曲”,能跟多说说吗? 
兰斯:事实证明,在大多数胶片的各个层和过滤器之间的反应会引入耦合效应。因为它会从低曝光记录高曝光,这使得中性轴在最终的颜色上稍微有所偏移。我把这种现象称为“扭曲”,因为它并非一直都不偏不倚。电子传感器并不是以这种方式耦合,而是由每个颜色通道以线性响应进入的光子数量,所以它们一般不会表现出这类反应,这种现象通常在摄影机摄影机的颜色处理中也不会被重现。

Art: Technically, how do you reproduce the looks of specific film stocks?

Lance: Ah, this is an easy question. As a scientist, I measure it! Science is cool that way.

Well, okay, it’s not in fact all that easy at all, as there are all sorts of processes in the middle that affect the way that film responds and is perceived. But at the base level we take a film stock, expose it with some known and calibrated colours, and then measure the resulting film densities. We then introduce a wavelength based profile to model the layers, and build a negative, and then a print from that same data set.

One of the best days here was the first time we punched up the negative model and, out of curiosity, had it produce an RGB negative image using a film illuminant and a set of human perception values. Without any fussing the thing showed up orange, just like a real negative. Science is awesome that way!


从技术上讲,你怎么重现特定胶片的外观?
这是一个简单的问题。作为一个科学家,靠计算就好了嘛!这种时候,科学真是帅毙了。好吧,嗯,其实也没那么容易,因为在胶片被感知和被洗印的过程中存在着种种过程。但基本来说,我们会先拿出一卷胶卷,将它以已知的并且经过计算的颜色曝光,然后测量相应的胶片密度。我们接着会引入一个以波长为基础的测量模型来建模,建立图层,然后建立负片,最后则是以同样的数据设置印出底片。

我们有一天非常高兴,就是我们第一次推出负片模型的那天。并且,由于好奇心,我们让它使用胶片光源和一系列的人类感知衡量价值来制造出RGB负片。我们没有把图像搞的一团橙色,它看起来就跟真正的负片没有区别。科学好了不起啊!

IMG 8153 AA02 C100test
Profiling the Canon C100.

分析佳能C100 

Lance: To this stack of processes, though, is added a little secret sauce which is the real technical issue that we had to overcome. What we’ve got is a detailed perceptual model that’s added on top of this wavelength-based and quite accurate film model. So, for example, the white point of a piece of film and the white point of your monitor are vastly different, both in actual luminosity and actual color. We introduce a white point adaptation model to move the measured film white point more towards a Rec 709 white point so that it’ll sit natively in your monitor space a little more nicely.

We also have a gamut and exposure matching model that adapts colours that film can display to a similar colour in your monitor’s gamut space, and importantly, we do the same thing with the source camera, all in such a way that we’re trying to maintain the same perceptual intent and richness of what film does. It comes back to that brain perceptual model thing again.


我们要对这许多流程稍微添色,因为这是我们必须克服的真正技术问题。现在我们能够在这种基于波长的、相当准确的胶片模型之上添加详细的感知模型。因此,举例来说,一块胶片的白点和你的显示器的白点,无论是在实际光度与实际颜色上都有很大的不同。我们引入了一个白点适应模型,让被测量的胶片白点更加近似于Rec709的白点,因此,它会在显示器空间拥有更好适应性。

我们也有一个色域和曝光匹配模式,它可以将胶片的颜色转换为显示器色域空间中的相近颜色,重要的是,我们以同样的方式操作源摄影机,努力保持与胶片相同的感知意图和丰富性。这又回到大脑感知模型了。


While we’re reproducing film with a huge degree of accuracy, we’re not in fact exactly reproducing the exact colours that you would see in a cinema. We have to adapt it, otherwise footage viewed on a computer or HD monitor would seem murky and a bit yellow and you’d think something was wrong. It’s all done with a massive amount of care as we are hugely pedantic about reproducing the oddities of the chemical film process and ensuring the accuracy of that part of the model.

The computation is strangely expensive but, in the end, this real-world data driven model is the core value that we’re aiming for, and which sets us apart from most of our competition. It’s massively worth the effort.


虽然我们是以极大的精确度再现色域,其实我们不是完全精确地再现你会在电影院里看到的色彩。我们必须要调整它,否则,电脑或高清显示器上看到的画面就会比较阴暗,有点偏黄,你会觉得有哪里不对劲。这一切都完成的格外细心,因为我们极其着重还原化学洗印过程的特质,并确保该模型的准确性。

计算贵的出奇,但最后,这个现实世界的数据驱动模型正是我们的核心目标,它使我们有别于我们的大部分竞争对手。我们的努力非常值得。


Art: I’ve noticed that one aspect of the film look is that saturation decreases with exposure, whereas video saturation increases until it clips. Is this something you compensate for in your software?

Lance: Indeed, some of these effects we are able to simulate. Part of the difficulty though, is that, in this example, the dynamic range of the film negative/print stock lets highlights roll off really nicely while the average video camera won’t have the same amount of available overhead for super bright highlights. We’ll pull the simulation quietly into a more film-like model, but we won’t force it to match the full film effect as that would unduly affect more of the on-exposure range.


亚特:我注意到,胶片感的一个方面就是饱和度会随着曝光而减少。但是,视频的饱和度会随着曝光而增加,你是不是会在软件中做出补偿?
兰斯:的确,我们能够模拟一些效果。但是有一个部分比较难:胶片负片或者是底片的动态范围会让高光温和地展开,但是一般的摄影机就不会有相同数量的,为超级亮的高光留下的“净空”。我们会把模拟放在一个更具胶片味道的模型之中,但是不会要求它去完全匹配胶片效果,因为那会影响到曝光范围。

A side note from Art:

Because every HD camera has a different amount of overexposure “headroom,” or portion of its dynamic range allocated to the brightness values between middle gray and maximum highlight exposure, that soft film roll-off has to be tailored to work with every camera.

For example, if a film stock normally rolls off highlights across the top three stops of its seven stops of overexposure headroom then this same model might work marvelously with a camera that offers the same seven stops of overexposure headroom in which to work, whereas a camera with four stops of overexposure headroom may require that roll-off to be further compressed in order to achieve the same look with less room in which to work.


因为每一个高清摄像头有不同数值的过度曝光“净空”,或者部分动态范围,它被分配给了从中灰到最大高光曝光的亮度值,让高光在胶片上柔软地展开,因此必须在每部摄影机上都进行裁剪以调整效果。

例如,如果一个胶卷通常在过度曝光净空的七度里占到前三度,那么这个相同的模型可能会在同样有七度曝光净空的摄影机上发挥正常。然而若摄影机只有四度曝光净空,可能就需要进一步压缩以达到相同的外观,让它在更小的空间内工作。

Lance: So it’s part of that delicate model balance between technical correctness, which would see video highlights clip hard because of where the real world exposure is, and modeling film behavior, where we adjust highlights that technically shouldn’t change. We’re a bit in between, which is part of our whole philosophy: strictly emulating the things that matter, and modeling the perceptual behavior of things that don’t but which complete the effect.

Happily though, some of the newer cameras, like the BMCC, Alexa, and even the Canon C100 & C300 have a nice bit of headroom available that’s not present directly in cameras like the 5D’s video mode, so more of these wonderful filmic effects can be accurately simulated on these cameras.


所以我们要在技术正确性之间获得细腻的模型平衡,这将会让视频高光省略很多。出于现实世界中的曝光,模拟胶片行为,我们会调整技术上不应该被改变的高光。我们一直比较中庸,这是我们整个理念的一部分:严格模拟起到作用的事情,并且为人类知觉建模,它不能完成效应,但是可以补充效应。

令人高兴的是,一些较新的摄影机,像BMCC和Alexa,甚至佳能C100和C300都有一个不错的净空高度可用,这在摄影机,比如5D的视频模式下是没有直接显示的。因此,在这些摄影机上可以更加准确地模拟出精彩的胶片效果。

5D country HD
(left to right) Canon 5D untouched, then processed through filmConvert to emulate Fuji’s 8543 motion picture stock and Fuji’s Nexia H400 stills stock.

(由左到右)佳能5D原片,通过filmConvert处理,模拟富士的8543电影胶卷和富士尼克夏H400剧照胶卷。 


Art: Are there any other non-obvious aspects of the film look that you exploit?

Lance: For the most part we’re aiming more towards the color effects in our emulation model, so things like halation and aberration effects and differences in resolving power due to grain growth and diffraction limiting are not being addressing specifically.


你有没有利用其他比较不明显的方面来模拟出胶片感? 
兰斯:在大多数情况下,我们倾向于在仿真模型内模拟色彩效果。因此,由于颗粒增长和衍射限制,有的东西,比如说光晕以及像差影响在分辨力方面造成的差异并没有被特别着重。


We’re actually concerned that this would be prohibitively expensive from a computational standpoint. We started down this road with the grain model and quickly got bogged down in an unworkably expensive computation that, although physically accurate, was just too expensive. So for some of these secondary spatial effects we’ve simplified the model considerably in the interest of efficiency.

Will we add them in the future? I would place a pretty strong bet that upcoming versions may well include more of these wonderful filmic effects.


其实我们关注的是,从计算的角度来看,这法子太贵了。我们从颗粒模型开始,然后很快找到了一种根本行不通的计算方法,虽然它在物理上十分的精确,但是成本过于高昂。于是我们简化了模型的一些次要效果以提高效率。
我们会在未来增加这些效果。我敢说,有很大的机会,新版本中将会增添一些有趣的胶片效果。


Art: How do you emulate film grain, and how important do you think that is to the film look?

Lance: I think grain emulation is massively important to the film model, yet at the same time it’s one of the most misunderstood aspects of our film model. We’ve noticed a bunch of folks talking about film grain and it seems that it’s a matter of expectation, but the problem is that most people don’t see actual film grain in an actual picture anymore, so they’re not quite sure what it really looks like.

We started where I like to start, by measuring the real world. We examined actual bits of film using a high resolution scanner. With this we could look at things like structure and the amount of grain across various exposures and colours. We initially started out thinking that we could actually simulate grain with a sort of physical model by building grain algorithmically, but this sort of brute-force physical model was hugely expensive.


如何模拟胶片颗粒,你觉得它对于胶片感有多重要?
我认为模拟胶片颗粒对于模拟胶片感再重要不过,但同时,这也是我们的照片模型受到误解的方面之一。我们注意到有许多人会谈论胶片颗粒,让这个功能好像很是众望所归。回到实际一看,大部分人从来没有在真正的照片里见过真正的照片颗粒,所以他们自己也不确定胶片颗粒看起来应该是什么样子。

我们是从测量现实世界着手的。我们以高分辨率扫描仪来检测胶片的实际参数。有了这个,就可以看到胶片颗粒在不同曝光和色彩下的数量和结构。我们最初以为自己可以用算法来构造颗粒,通过物理模型来模拟颗粒效果,但这种简单匹配算法的物理模型极其昂贵。

At some point we decided to use the grain scans we had to provide the density structures, sort of the seed for the underlying grain morphology, and combine that with a density profile that includes density shifts in the underlying RGB data that matches what real grain does. And not only did this work amazingly well, but it re-measures in precisely the same way a piece of film does which is hugely exciting.

Part of the fun of building FilmConvert has been coming up with these vast simplifications to a model: finding ways of collapsing complicated effects into elegant data structures that are orders of magnitude more efficient, yet still manage to retain the complexity and accuracy of the original.

We couldn’t have done a film emulator without grain. It’s crucial.


后来我们决定使用颗粒扫描来提供颗粒密度结构。这也算是为颗粒的形态学播下种子。并且我们将之与密度分析器相结合,分析器包括了在底层的RGB数据中的密度变换,与真实胶片一致。这么做的效果非常好,而且还能够重新准确地衡量胶片的洗印过程,这是非常令人兴奋的。

开发FilmConvert的部分乐趣来自大刀阔斧地简化模型:找到方法将复杂的效果分解为优雅的数据结构,大大提升效率,但仍保留原来的复杂性和准确性。没了胶片颗粒,我们就没法做胶片模拟器了。所以这是至关重要的。

Art: How hard is it to build the same look for different cameras? Do you find that different cameras have dramatically different looks?

Lance: In the beginning, collecting and building profile data was quite difficult and ate a lot of our resources. Happily, though, as we began to learn more about the hangups that cameras have, the process has gotten significantly smoother and quicker. Really the difficulty comes down to making sure that you know what a camera is actually doing: for example, does a camera have some sort of automatic knee that’s going to confuse our profiler? This really just requires a good read of the manual. Bizarrely, as a result of FilmConvert, I’ve also become an expert in the operation of a ton of cameras.


为不同的摄影机画面打造同样的画面观感有多难?不同的摄影机是否差别显著?


兰斯:在开始的时候,收集和建立分析数据是相当困难的,消耗了我们很多资源。还好当我们开始了解摄影机的其他东西时,这个流程变得更加流畅迅捷了。真正的困难在于确定,你是否知道摄影机到底在干什么?
比如说摄影机有没有会妨碍分析的自动肩点。这真的需要好好地读通手册。奇怪的是,作为开发FilmConvert的结果,我也在许多摄影机操作方面成了专家。


Speaking of cameras, it’s also been a bit eye opening just how different manufacturers are with respect to how they approach both the colour balance of a camera as well as the colour processing. What I found really interesting is how various cameras process colours in their own 3D space. I’ve found some cameras whose colours change dramaticallly throughout the exposure range in really odd ways. Happily we’re able to unwind this signal processing so that we can get a great consistent film look.


We’ve also been occasionally flummoxed when the exact same camera changes its colour science when we do things like upgrade its firmware, which took us a bit by surprise, but now that we know that manufacturers are likely to tinker in these ways we can keep an eye on them.

Once we have the data from the camera itself, building the model is actually fairly straightforward now — the first time we did it it definitely wasn’t, but we’ve gotten pretty good at it now.


说到摄影机,看到这么多厂家对摄影机的色彩平衡还有色彩处理上的巨大差异,也算打开了我们的眼界。我发现有件事情特别有意思:各种摄影机如何在自己的3D空间处理颜色。我发现一些摄影机的颜色会在整个曝光范围内以很奇怪的方式改变。令人高兴的是,我们能够解读信号处理,这样就可以得到一个很棒并且一致的胶片外观。

在我们做固件升级时,摄影机有时候会呈现出完全不一样的色彩学,把我们搞的有点措手不及,但现在知道厂商很可能在这些方面瞎捣鼓,就可以留些心了。

一旦从摄影机本身得到数据,构建模型其实相当简单——我们第一次时还不太顺,但现在已经做得很好。

Alexa City HD 001
(left to right) Arri Alexa log footage processed through filmConvert to emulate Fuji’s SuperX 400 stills stock and Kodak’s 5207 motion picture stock.

(由左到右)ALEXA的素材通过filmConvert处理,模拟富士SuperX400的剧照胶卷和柯达的5207电影胶片 


Art: In broad strokes, how would you describe the looks of the different cameras that you profile?

Lance: All over the place! Well, it’s not really as bad as all that, but there are actually fairly significant differences from manufacturer to manufacturer and even within the same camera family.

Before doing FilmConvert I was already familiar with a few different electronic cinema cameras from my work in VFX, but these were more of the big-brick high-budget cinema type cameras, the Panavision Genesis and the like. Moving down and evaluating cameras like the Canon 5D came as an enormous surprise: here we’ve got cameras ordinary filmmakers can afford to  buy that are similar in performance to things that used to cost $250-500K. You have to work within the limitations of the less expensive cameras a bit, but compared to the stuff I used in art school (tube cameras, with only two tubes) these cameras are magnificent!


在大体上你会怎么样描述你所分析的各种不同摄影机的图像外观?
兰斯:所有地方都有不同。恩,其实也没有那么过分,各家厂商之间的差距是相当明显的,就算是在同一个摄影机家族那也是相当明显的。

做FilmConvert之前,我已经因为做视觉特效而熟悉了几款不同的数字电影摄影机,但这些摄影机更偏于大规模,高预算的电影拍摄使用,比如潘那维申Genesis 还有类似摄影机。从大机子到小机子,评估像佳能5D这样的产品也是一个巨大的惊喜:这种普通电影人都买得起的设备,性能也与耗资25-50万的摄影机相仿。在那些比较便宜的摄影机里你的工作范围会受到一点限制。可是比起我在学校用的那些东西(真空管式传感器摄影机,只有两个管子)这些摄影机简直好的没话说!


As to the look, well, that’s quite hard to quantify. Camera like RED and Alexa are meant to be massaged quite a lot in post, so although they have a distinctive out of the box look I don’t think I would describe them as having a look that you’d ever want to keep intact in its default state. That being said, the Alexa has a fairly nice out of the box balance, although it’s default end-to-end gamma is a little less than, say, a Canon 5D, and it’s skin tones go a bit pinkish. But really you’d want to capture Alexa or RED footage with a great exposure and look on set, followed by a gentle massage in post.

So, I think this is a trick question! There are no broad strokes that you can really talk about. They all have different looks, and without exception they can all be pushed around in camera or, if you’re lucky, during extraction in post. The filmmaker’s challenge is to note the differences, keep in mind the dynamic range you’re limited to, and work with them to achieve a creative aim. And then use filmConvert to make them all look a million times better, and like film, of course. But I may be a bit biased on this last thing.


至于图像外观,这是相当难以量化的。像RED和Alexa这样的摄影机在后期中需要做不少调整,所以尽管它们有一个独特的、不确定的图像外观,我却不认为你需要保持那种外观一成不变。话虽这么说,Alexa有一个相当不错的平衡性,虽然它的默认端到端的伽玛值会比佳能5D少些,而且肤色有些偏粉。要是你真的想要在高曝光下用Alexa或RED镜头拍摄并且在现场观看,就得做点后期处理了。

所以,我认为这是一个棘手的问题!你没法子谈论大概念。它们都具有不同的图像外观,并无一例外可以在机内进行调整,或者,如果你比较走运,就可以在后期导出进行调整。电影制片人的挑战是,要注意到这些差异,谨记你手头有限的动态范围,并利用这些因素实现你的创意。最后,使用filmConvert使它们好看上很多倍,当然还会颇具胶片感。这最后一件事是我个人见解啦。

5D jesse HD 001
(left to right) Canon 5D footage processed through filmConvert to emulate Fuji’s 8563 motion picture stock and Kodak’s Portra 400 stills stock.

(由左到右)佳能5D素材经由filmConvert处理,模仿富士8563电影胶卷和柯达Portra400剧照胶卷。 


Art: If your software could change or advance the state of filmmaking, what would that look like?

Lance: Promoting great and simple tools for filmmakers.

Really that’s what we’re after: small gizmos that can help filmmakers and artists of all levels achieve their vision. If we’re not helping that vision then what’s the point? That technology has gotten so inexpensive that filmmakers can access these sophisticated sensors and techniques is fantastic, and if we can push this beautiful trend along just a little further then I think we’ve won.


为电影制作者研发简单好用的工具!
兰斯:说实在的,这就是我们追求的:帮助电影制片人和各种各样的艺术创作者实现他们愿景的小发明。如果不是为了这个,那么这一切又有什么意义?现在的技术已经变得如此廉价,电影制作者们可以不花大钱就获得这些复杂的传感器,而且专业技巧也非常不错。只要能把这个美妙的潮流继续推进一点点,我觉得我们就算没有白忙。

Art: There may come a time when a generation of filmmakers doesn’t grow up with the “film look” that current generations have. What would you say to them about the film look?

Lance: I’ve actually thought about this for some time. It’s an obvious thing that styles and aesthetics change over time. This isn’t a bad thing; for example, I don’t suspect folks would be keen on using the aesthetic of the early silent film era on todays’ stories. But I’d also tell folks to find a real print every now and then. It’s a strange thing to watch a real print after years of digital-only screenings, but it’s also a wonderful experience. I can’t quite describe it, but for serious storytellers it’s definitely something that needs to be seen first hand.


亚特:总有时候,未来的电影制作者们可能不会像现在这一代一样,与胶片感共同成长,你又要怎么跟他们说“胶片感”这事呢?
兰斯:其实这个问题我也想过一段时间。很显然,随着时间的推移,风格和审美都会改变,这并不是一件坏事。例如,我不觉得人们会把早期默片时代的审美应用到今天的故事上。但我还是要告诉人们,应该时不时去接触真正的底片。在好几年只看过数码形式拍摄的影片之后,看到一卷真正的底片,肯定感觉会很奇怪,但同样也非常宝贵。我自己形容不来,不过如果你想认真的讲故事,就一定要先看看底片是什么样子。

So while we’re looking backwards to some degree, it’s with the hope that people looking forward can see the inherent meaningfulness of this great 100 year old technology and it’s ability to help pass an emotion to the audience. And there does seem to be a resonance here, where some filmmakers just get the idea right out of the box, and that’s wonderfully exciting for us to be a part of.

虽然我们在一定意义上算是在走回头路,不过我们想让那些一直朝前看的人回一下头,看看这项已有百岁高龄的伟大技术的内在意义,以及它向观众传达情感的能力。我们的这种想法也获得了一些响应。有一些电影制作者已经有了这个想法,我们很高兴自己也能够参与进来。


来源:http://www.dvinfo.net/article/post/why-make-video-look-like-film-an-inside-look.html

作者:亚特·亚当斯   译:吴晓晖


 
 
 
 
   
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